Pomeranian is a bold, inquisitive and lively dog breed that was favored for a long time by royals and commoners and he's been called an ideal companion. These dogs are also called: Zwergspitz, dwarf spitz, Pom-dog, Pom-pom, and tumbleweed. Because of his glorious coat, cute foxy face and lively personality this dog is one of the world's most popular dog breeds. They will form an extremely firm bond with one person in the house, but they will be also friendly to other members of the family and other people they meet outside.



6-7 in (15-18 cm)



3-7 lb (1-3 kg)





Life Expectancy:

12-16 years

Breed History

The Pomeranian (or simply the Pom) is a small, toy-sized dog developed in the province of Pomerania (the area of northeastern Europe that is now part of Poland and western Germany) from the ancient Spitz breeds of the northern countries. Pomeranians are the tiniest of the Spitz. Their relatives (the Norwegian Elkhound, the Schipperke, the German Spitz, the American Eskimo Dog, the Samoyed) were bred to guard homes, pull sleds and protect livestock. Throughout their history, Pomeranians have decreased in size and are now much smaller than their ancestors. Today, because of its size, the Pomeranian is cared for as a pet and companion. 

In the early day, these dogs were extremely popular. Many famous and notable people owned this dog including Martin Luther, Michelangelo (while he was painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel his dog sat on the pillow and watch him), Isaac Newton, Mozart, etc.

FUN FACT: Queen Victoria fell in love with this breed in 1888 while vacationing in Florence, Italy. She brought one home with her and the breed became extremely popular in Great Britain. After that, the popularity of this breed just kept growing. Queen Victoria became a breeder and started exhibiting her Poms. One of her favorites, called Windsor Marco, won first place in the breed.

English dog fanciers were inspired by Victoria's love of the Pomeranians that they began with breeding smaller Poms. In the time from 1900 until 1930s Cruft's dog show had the most Pomerian entries. During that period the breed standard was set with the size and coat varieties as we know it today. After the Poms began to win at a dog show the number of their coat colors began to expand (in the beginning they were mostly white, black, blue and chocolate).

The first Pomeranian that entered AKC studbook was a dog named Dick. AKC recognized this dog breed in 1900 and with that this dog become massively popular across the country and it remains very popular to this day.

Dog Breed Characteristics

Energy Level
Grooming Needs
Exercise Needs
Kid Friendly
Dog Friendly
General Health

They have pricked ears, foxy face, a thick coat, and curled tail.

FCI standard

According to this standard are 8 inches (21 centimeters) high with a tolerance of 3 cm, and they weight corresponding to their size. They belong to Group 5 (Spitz and Primitive dogs) – section 4 (European Spitz #97e).

small pom


Pomeranian's most distinguishing feature is his thick, double coat with a soft, fluffy undercoat. They come in any color or pattern you can imagine in dogs. Early Poms were primarily white, black, chocolate or blue, but after an orange dog began winning at dog shows in the 1920s, the range of colors expanded. Today, most common colors are orange or red. Because of their long, fluffy hair, they shed a lot. To keep shedding under control brush your dog regularly, at least twice a week. Brushing will keep your dog's hair clean, shiny and free of mats and/or tangles. Trim your dog's nails regularly and brush their teeth.


It is highly recommended that you find a groomer to do a full groom—including bath, brushing, ears, nails, and anal glands—every four to six weeks, if you are not comfortable with doing this at home. You should also pay close attention to the Pom’s teeth. It is a good idea to brush the teeth during their weekly grooming session.


These dogs are friendly, extroverted dogs. They enjoy meeting new people and usually get along with other animals. But, the important thing to say about Pomeranians is that most of them just don't realize how small they are and will often tackle large dogs or at least verbally threaten them. They should be trained to walk on a leash. Consistency and patience is the key with these dogs. The very important thing you should watch and never allow your dog is jumping on and off the couch because he could easily hurt himself (injure joints or even break a bone). They are highly intelligent dog breed and they excel in many dog activities such as agility, obedience, and rally. They are eager to learn new things and because of that, they are easy to train. Sometimes they can be unpredictable and like any other dog, they need early socialization. Expose your dog to many different things, sights and sounds while he's young so he will grow into a well-rounded dog. This dog doesn’t like to be left alone for a longer period because they can suffer from separation anxiety and that means they are not the best choice for people who spend most of their time outside the house.

pomeranian on pillow


These are active little dogs that do need moderate daily exercise. They will enjoy long walks, but keep in mind that they are small and sensitive to both, heat and humidity. You need to pay attention during your walks so that they don't become overheated. Also, while you are outside with your Pom, you should watch out for predators. Pomeranians can be perceived as prey by owls, eagles, hawks, coyotes, and other wild animals. Hunting animals are not the only one causing problems for Pomeranian owners. Because of their small size and attractive looks, Poms are targets for so-called dognappers.

These dogs love to play and are very active indoors, too, so make sure they have a lot of toys to keep them busy because they can get bored easily.

These dogs don't require a lot of exercise but you need to be careful while your dog is young. You shouldn't overexercise your Pomeranian puppy because of their joins and bones. They are still growing and if you give them too much exercise while they are young there is a risk that you are putting too much pressure on their joints and bones and there is a greater possibility that your dog will develop some serious health problems later in life.

Pomeranians and kids

Pomeranians get along well with children, but only with children who know how to play with a tiny dog. They are too delicate to be handled roughly, so they prefer the company of adults. They aren't an overly dependent breed, so are perfect for busy people.

They love to play but you must be very careful during playtime because this dog is so fragile. Many Pomeranian breeders will not sell his puppies to a family that has a small child because he knows that there is a great possibility that the dog gonna be hurt. Before allowing playtime, teach your kids how to properly approach and ply with the dog. Never allow them to pick up and carry the dog around because if they slip them out of hand he will get injured. Very important thing is that you should always supervise playtime so you can be sure that the dog will not get hurt.

Other pets

These dogs can get along with other pets especially if they are raised together. You need to protect them from bigger dogs because most of the dogs who have higher prey drive will look at your dog as prey. Also, in most cases, these dogs don’t realize how small they are and will sometimes challenge bigger dogs.

FUN FACT: Only three dogs survived the sinking of the Titanic in 1912. Two of these three dogs were Pomeranians. One of them was the pet of Elizabeth Barrett Rothschild who escaped in lifeboat number six. The other was a Pomeranian called Lady who was owned, who escaped with her owner Miss Margaret Hays in lifeboat number seven.


They are known for being cute, intelligent, lively, mischievous, and loyal. These dogs love to be the center of attention, but they can become dominant, willful and stubborn if not well trained and socialized. Pomeranians need to see their owners as a boss or they will become very demanding. They love to learn new things and tricks and performing, but they have a short attention span, so keep training sessions brief and fun. Pomeranians can be difficult to housetrain. They can be stubborn about going outside to do their business, especially if it’s rainy or cold outside.

FUN FACT: Poms make excellent therapy dogs.

Pomeranian barking

They make excellent watchdogs and can be prone to excessive barking. Pomeranians often are suspicious of strangers and can bark a lot. They have a high-pitched bark and can bark all day long, so it is of crucial significance to teach them to stop barking on command.

Health issues

These dogs have one of the longest life expectancies of all the dog breeds as they can live for around 16 years. Although generally healthy, in those 16 years, a Pomeranian can develop some health conditions. Some problems often seen in these dogs are a condition called Alopecia X or „black skin disease“. This is a genetic disorder that leads to their skin turning black and losing their hair; luxating patella, which is dislocation of the kneecap, or tracheal collapse, which is a condition in which the trachea, which carries air to the lungs, tends to collapse easily. The most common symptom of tracheal collapse is chronic and dry cough. Other health problems Pomeranians are prone to are a hip problem called Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, allergies, ranging from contact allergies to food allergies; epilepsy, eye problems, dental problems, etc.

Always it's advised to find a good breeder who will show you health certificates of his breeding dogs. I the breeder is testing his breeding dogs there is a lower possibility that the puppies will end up with hereditary diseases.

There are a few recommended health tests that you can perform on your dog to be sure that he is healthy: patella evaluation, cardiac exam and ophthalmologist evaluation.

pom dog

FUN FACT: Many important historical personalities, such as Martin Luther, Michelangelo, and Mozart (who even dedicated an aria to his beloved dog) owned a Pomeranian.

FUN FACT: Internet sensation Boo is a Pomeranian.

Pomeranian breeders

If you decided that this is the right dog breed for you, now its time to find good and responsible Pom breeders. You must be very careful when searching for good breeders. Never buy a dog from a pet store or a puppy mill breeder. On the World Dog Finder website, you can find only official Pomeranian breeders that are registered in their kennel association of their county. What that means is that you will get all the necessary papers for the dog and that means there is a low risk that your future dog will develop some serious health problems. After you chose a few breeders to contact them and ask all the questions you are interested in. Many Pom breeders will also ask you a lot of questions to find out more about your lifestyle and also are you good enough for their puppy. Don’t be surprised if the breed will refuse to sell you the dog. The most important thing for them is to find a good home for their dogs, so if he senses that something is strange most probably he will not sell you the dog. Also, like we already said earlier very important factor is kids. If you have a small child at home be prepared for the situation where the breeder will not sell you the puppy. Pomeranians are very fragile and if you get one take your time and devote yourself to your dog so that both of you will be happy.


World Dog Finder team


Updated at05.06.2022.